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RohinGupta

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About RohinGupta

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  1. I think since early Ayn Rand, meaning of the term instinct has significantly deteriorated, as is evident from negative uses by later Ayn Rand. So question is, whether I am justified in contributing to further deteriorate the word use, by using it with negative ideologies? I think the term which means "the ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning.", unlike selfishness need not be resurrected. Particularly because we have the term "sense of life" or "sensibility" to replace positive connotations early use of the term had. Good to move it to completely negative usage, and discredit the people who use it positively.
  2. Thanks for the reference. I will take away following learning from the section. The role of sub-conscious or sense of life in formulating right ideas. Since psychology is the study of sub-conscious, so systematizing this aspect can help in formation of right ideas. So while focus will still remain on training sub-conscious using conscious, I will consider adding a chapter where conscious ideas are aligned to subconscious ideas from sense of life. For e.g. I can compare my current philosophical bent to the study of good literature in school. While my brother lacked this bent and ended up being more pragmatic, because his school curriculum was very science and math focused. Not sure where this is coming from, but I used "instincts" twice in my blog, both in the context of ideologies I do not subscribe to. How exactly should these should change to "mental connections", I am not sure?
  3. I have now moved my focus from the field of MANAGEMENT, to the field of PSYCHOLOGY. This is my first blog on the subject. The inputs here will be quite helpful, as I am planning to write more blogs and perhaps a book on the subject of Psychology.
  4. PSYCHOLOGY BY FREUD AND OBVERSE PLATONISM Sigmund Freud [1] was an Austrian-German psychotherapist, who wrote some books and presented many ideas in the field of psychology, when the subject was in its infancy. Here are the key points that Freud brought into this field. Division of mind into conscious, subconscious, and unconscious elements. Further claiming that unconscious and subconscious aspects like dreams and hypnosis are most important. Emphasizing on the urge to break rules, like longing to incest with mother (what he called the Oedipus complex). Overall, generalizing ideas from behavior of individuals like Dora[7], who was in a mentally disturbed state of hysteria. CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SIGMUND FREUD Despite many shortcomings and contradictions I see in his approach, the one thing that draws me to the ideas of Sigmund Freud is his cultural impact. In this age, when Pragmatism or aversion from principles, or aversion from abstract ideas as such, is mainstream; in this age you can just look at ideas of Freud, and cultural products like movies or commonly spoken phrases, and point out that ideas do impact culture and people. Specifically the lingua or phrases I am thinking about is slang like mother f*****r or sister f*****r, connecting it to the idea of Oedipus complex by Freud. Or his focus on characters like Dora (Ida Bauer), and widely popular movies like Psycho, or Exorcist, or Shutter Island, or Silence of the Lambs. If we look into essence of lead characters in these movies and also few other plot elements, signature of Freud is unmistakable. ANCIENT GREECE AND PLATO The deeper understanding of Freud’s ideas will require some digression. A look into the ideas of Ancient Greece, specifically those of Plato and Aristotle. How these ideas, which originated in 4th Century BC, impacted the intellectuals like Freud in 19th century AD? Basic summary of Plato’s ideas is as follows. There is this world that we see, which is imperfect in every respect. There is this other world that we should strive to know, but we cannot see. For example this world has circular rings or spherical rocks, which clearly vary from ideas of circle or sphere. The other world has perfect circle and sphere, which are the cause of corresponding imperfect objects in this world. Similarly it can be extrapolated that perfect human is in the other world, and humans on earth are shadows of the One. There were other Platonic ideas like Authoritarian dictator he called Philosopher King, pure (Platonic) love devoid of carnal instincts etc. With some application these ideas can be also traced back to the dual world theory. ARISTOTLE Aristotle’s focus, as is quite clear from this painting, was on this world. He rejected existence of the other world of forms by Plato, and instead focused on forming concepts through categories, inferences through syllogisms etc., and deriving ideas from objects one could look and see. Geometric circles for example are a “quality” (in contemporary terminology we will call it “attribute”) of circular rings. DISSEMINATION OF PLATO’S IDEAS A chain of intellectuals, mostly in Roman-Christian culture, distributed and applied the ideas of Plato. These intellectuals included Plotinus, Porphyry, Saint Augustine, and some more. The Christian idea of Original Sin, cemented by Saint Augustine, claims that every human is not just imperfect, but irredeemable in this world. Only hope is to give up pride and focus on salvation in the other, most perfect world. DISSEMINATION OF ARISTOTLE’S IDEAS ­­­Aristotle’s influence started becoming mainstream with Saint Aquinas in 13th Century AD. With Newton applying Aristotelian logic to usher scientific revolution in 17th Century, and ideas like Liberty from American Revolution through John Locke in 18th century; this worldly Aristotelian ideas started dominating Platonic-Christian ideas. IMMANUEL KANT This brings me to the reaction to Aristotelian dominance in 18th century. A committed Christian and intellectual Immanuel Kant came up with a new Philosophical system. Rather than uphold Plato, his intent was to develop a system similar to that of Plato, with the objective of confusing Aristotelian ideas. So here also two worlds were postulated, but the other world was not a higher reality like that by Plato. Like Plato the inferior world was the one we could look and see, but the superior world was also around us, not an entity like heaven. Only we could not observe (or infer from Observation) this noumenal world, because our senses distorted the true view. Since Aristotelian idea of one world had established the Law of Identity, Kant discredited Aristotle by appealing to the identity of human sense organs. Unlike Plato who claimed that superior world can be known through some direct connect like intuition, for Kant noumenal world was unknowable. And since abstract ideas like those of Ethics cannot be seen, so he postulated that ideas like Altruism or sacrifice as good cannot be scientifically derived. Instead these should be accepted on faith, through the term he called Categorical Imperative [2]. LONG TERM IMPACT OF IMMANUEL KANT The contemporary philosophy of Pragmatism is the product of ideas of Kant. Since as per Kant abstract ideas were unknowable, so advocates of Pragmatism denounced principled and abstract thinking. Instead advocating action based on limited or no thought. Further, current wave involving ideologies like Egalitarianism and Nihilism is also an application of Kantian Philosophy. Since Altruism through Categorical Imperative is an important component of Kantian Ethics, so Equality of outcome through Egalitarianism, and destruction of well-to-do through Nihilism for achieving equality are often advocated. CAUSE AND MEANING OF OBVERSE PLATONISM The ideas of Pragmatism, Egalitarianism, and Nihilism have become mainstream in 20th century. Before, in 19th century and early part of 20th century, the time when Freud was active, Kant had a different type of impact. Instead of directly leading to ideas like Pragmatism, application of his philosophy, the ideas of Kant (and ideas of his predecessor Hume to a lesser extent), mainly stunted and stopped the dissemination of application of the Aristotelian ideas. As a result of this sudden halt, the academic focus shifted back to the application of Plato’s philosophy, and also application of Platonic thinking Christian ideas encouraged. During Aristotelian rise since 13th Century, and dominance since Newton and Locke in 17th and 18th century, the cultural focus was on understanding and improving this world, through methods like scientific discoveries, institutionalizing Liberty, and Industrial Revolution. With Platonic thought coming back to forefront, the focus on this world remained, but the perspective of this worldly focus became Platonic. Plato had postulated that superior world is perfect, and this world is transient and miserable. So Christian-Platonic culture in pre-Aquinas era involved focus on superior world, with cultural representatives like priests and nuns giving up the worldly pleasures. But Christian-Platonic thought in post-Kantian era focused on what Plato regarded as inferior and miserable, this world. Therefore the term Obverse Platonism. (Obverse means the other side). DISSEMINATION OF OBVERSE PLATONISM First major product of this thought was the Philosophy of Hegel. The superior world is eternal and static, but the world we live in is changing and full of flux. Then came Communist Manifesto. Superior world is harmonious, where there is peaceful co-existence. In our world you are either exploiter or exploited. Since Win-Win relationships in this world are impossible, bourgeois ends up exploiting Proletariat in a Capitalist society. So while Plato proposed dictatorship of Philosophers, Karl Marx tweaked the idea and offered dictatorship of Proletariat to curb and reverse ugly human instincts that drive this miserable world. Similarly French Revolution started with Aristotelian idea of Liberty, but they too ended up with a dictator. This seemingly contradictory time has been elegantly captured in the opening of the novel A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens [3]. Best Time (Aristotelian perspective) — Worst time (Obverse Platonic perspective), Wisdom (Aristotelian) — Foolishness (Obverse Platonic), Light (Aristotelian) — Darkness (Obverse Platonic), hope-despair, everything-nothing etc. So in a nutshell, scientific, free-thinking, and industry inducing ideas of Aristotle were in a decline. And depravity upholding, reason disparaging, and industry hating Marxist ideas of Obverse Platonism were on the rise. SIGMUND FREUD IN THE ERA OF OBVERSE PLATONISM It was during this dominance of Obverse Platonism that Sigmund Freud started his practice of psychotherapy in Vienna. Since Plato and Christianity upheld rules of decorum in public space, Freud through Obverse Platonism believed that humans have an urge to break rules. Further, due to Kantian influence which intended to confuse Aristotelian ideas, Authoritarian rules from Christian-Communism-Platonism were falsely packaged with naturally derived rules like respecting and learning from wise people in society and family. There is nothing authoritarian about respecting genuine social boundaries, when these promote material and mental flourishing. So end result of Obverse Platonic application of Freud were ideas like incest with mother. At a broader level, ideas like Freudian slip communicated a general view of human nature. Focus on conscious ideas deliberately written in certain books is what Christianity and other religions promote (especially the monotheistic ones). Freud with Obverse Platonic premise promoted primacy of sub-conscious and unconscious aspects, over conscious aspects. Aristotelian application would have upheld conscious over sub-conscious, while acknowledging that sub-conscious is extensively used in productive endeavors like driving or drawing or forging. (I reject the idea of unconscious mind as proposed by Freud, because mind, a faculty for awareness not being conscious and still working is a contradiction of terms. There is enough empirical evidence for sub-conscious though.) Further, since Aristotle upheld this world, so application of his ideas focused on positive people like wise men and productive humans. But Obversely Platonic Freud had a world view of earth as miserable. So according to him disturbed and deranged individuals like Ida Bauer were true representatives of humans. For Freud purpose of Psychology was to focus on Criminals or negative aspects of humans like lying, cheating, manipulation etc. Aristotelian purpose would have been to train sub conscious using conscious, for improving skills like writing or machine use or repairing. So it’s no surprise that post-Freudian world came up with ideas like Game Theory, focusing on thought process of criminals trying to Game the system. (In Aristotelian Psychology focus on criminals will still be there, but not as prime-movers. Instead criminals will be secondary, being blockers or speed-breakers for producers). USING IDEAS OF FREUD TO IMPROVE PSYCHOLOGY Despite focus on negative human attributes and social elements, like Plato, Freud also had one positive contribution to the field he worked in. Plato rightly classified philosophy as the study of 5 branches. Metaphysics or the nature of reality and worldview, Epistemology or the method of thinking, Ethics or the methods of action based on guidelines, Politics or social structures involving Government, and Art or creation of artificial reality. The answers by Plato were two worlds in metaphysics, supernatural thinking as primary in epistemology, emphasis on authoritarianism in Ethics and Politics, and Art as a distraction from rational thought. These answers were of course wrong, but questions or the division of the subject into proper branches was correct. And eventually, we did get right answers from Aristotle’s philosophy, and now even better answers from Ayn Rand[4], Dr. Peikoff[5], and Dr. Binswanger[6]. Like Plato, Freud also correctly classified the key insights in the subject of Psychology. Insights like the division of mind into conscious and sub-conscious, with one of them being primary, is perhaps the most significant. Emotions being a critical part of psychology is another insight. Of course, given the Obverse Platonic premise which upheld miserable world, focus was on negative emotions of hate, anger, sadness and fear. Positive emotions of desire, joy, and love were mostly explored from a hedonistic perspective, rather than the depth of thought these emotions deserve. With right questions from Freud, and right guidelines from Aristotelian philosophy and Objectivism of Ayn Rand, subject of Psychology has a lot to offer to humanity. So let’s introspect using correct methods, and explore the most complex entity in nature, the human mind. References [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorical_imperative [3] Opening lines of A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens — It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way — in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. [4] http://aynrandlexicon.com/ [5] https://www.amazon.com/Dim-Hypothesis-Lights-West-Going/dp/0451466640 [6] http://www.how-we-know.com/ [7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dora_(case_study)
  5. Excited to publish most important part of the "Right & Wrong" video series. The animation about Ethics of "Rational Egoism". The Ethics Ayn Rand discovered and advocated. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x84uNdST2Ro
  6. RIGHT & WRONG - Ethical Survey of Altruism, Predatory Egoism, Hedonism, Eudaimonia Part 2, Episode 1, where Ethical code of following systems is analyzed, synthesized, and understood Altrusim Predatory Egoism Hedonism Eudaimonia or Flourishing Life Part 3, Episode 2, will have Rational Egoism, Nihilism, Categorical Imperative, Skepticism, and Pragmatism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfOmLOBp6ro&fbclid=IwAR3uxSpyZAeQOIlntCrCl-clB8vPHT9STCG0cWUaY2rR1R4uRSJatujcI-8
  7. Hi All, I am in middle of converting the content of blog into video. Please check the first draft of part of video and share feedback. Pending : Voice over and parts explaining values, Central Purpose of Life, and Alternative model.
  8. Specialized sciences need both, Philosophy and Observations. Check DIM Hypothesis by Dr. Peikoff for details. My blog contains both, the Philosophical Premises and Observation of Human situations.
  9. Psychology studies sub-conscious, and Ethics conscious. Sub-conscious is trained by conscious using Epistemology and Psycho-Epistemology. So philosophy, ethics and epistemology in particular, provides premises for psychology. And psychology is a derivative branch of philosophy like economics. Please check the medium blog for details. Behavioral School of Management connects subject of management to the subject of psychology.
  10. This even uses the word "primary". Rand and Maslow are highly compatible on this topic. If you read full article "Ethics of Emergencies", she also says that Emergency situations should not be the core motivation of Ethics (paraphrasing). In fact, Altruism fails because most of the times it uses such situations to justify sacrifice and Win-Lose relationships.
  11. A more elaborate explanation is here https://medium.com/@rohingupta2k18/reinventing-maslows-model-of-motivation-5cdc0d173caf?fbclid=IwAR1A2QxMa6NfYpUeu_zkYQJPbPtDnWIdKzl5szrk3aTXobSQD3FQEiL97Yc P.S: The Maslow's model of motivation is widely quoted in many influential books of management. I use Objectivist Ethics, concept of Central Purpose of Life in particular, to improve the model and its application.
  12. Maslow’s theory of motivation claims that first motivators are physiological factors like food, shelter, etc., after that safety factors like rule of law and insurance(protection in general), then meaningful social relationships, then social status and reputation, and finally an individual’s need to find himself or herself. The final one being self-actualization. From OEFO perspective, not a chosen few, but all adults are or should be motivated by self-actualization (OEFO refers to my book “Organizational Ethics from Objectivism”, from which the snippet is taken). The Central Purpose of Life (CPL) in Objectivist Ethics is quite similar to the concept of self-actualization. Other needs in Maslow’s model, ranging from physiological, safety-related, social, and emotional should be inferred and adjusted based on the CPL. For example, a CEO of an organizations will need a bigger social circle than a scientist(generally speaking), since the latter focuses more on in-depth study, and the former more on collaborative actions for building products and services. Safety is a negative factor and should not be the primary motivation. E.g., retiring early without having any clear CPL is not right. Also, the emotional part of the self should be fuelled using art or sports, such that one is sufficiently motivated to move towards their CPL. The same criteria is true for personal and other relationships. The contribution of each relationship towards the CPL should be evaluated. True, there are adults who have very destructive CPLs. Communism in Soviet Russia and elsewhere, Socialism in Nazi Germany, or many Socialist intellectuals and politicians of the Indian Left are a few of the examples of those having destructive CPLs. Also, among millennials, the non-productive purpose of enjoying as an ultimate end is popular. However, this too is not right as a Central Virtue, because it’s not derived from the Virtue of Productivity: The creation of products and services as a priority. These CPLs can be contrasted from the CPLs of Steve Jobs, Bill Gates 1.0, the founding fathers of America, Walt Disney, Narendra Modi, etc. Overall, irrespective of the value or the disvalue of CPL, the fact remains that humans are, or should be motivated by purpose.
  13. Good Morning, today is Saturday, 16th March. Second part of the study-group starts now. Following is the scope for this week’s study ------ 1. CONTINUING VARIOUS CONNETIONS BETWEEN THE CENTRAL PURPOSE OF LIFE(CPL) OF THE EMPLOYER(S) AND EMPLOYEE a.) The CPL in a skewed social system. 2. Summary of apparent CPLs that do not subscribe to Objectivist Morality 3. Employer-Employee relationship in Government Jobs 4. Conclusion ------ I will publish questions that the participants can optionally answer. Participants can also summarize or outline the text. They can also select the portion of text, analyzing and synthesizing it deeply, chew the content that is. So here are the questions from this week's content (CPL = Central Purpose of Life.) Q1.) What does “skewed social system” refer to in this book? Compare it to Totalitarian system? Q2.) What does “CPL in skewed social system” mean in the context of Industrial Relations? Give example from outside. Q3.) What is common between the CPLs discussed up to the apparent CPLs? Q4.) What are two apparent CPLs discussed here? Q5.) Contrast “hobby first” approach from “Wages” part of Employer-Employee relationship? Q6.) Why are we studying apparent CPLs? Also share your experience of these apparent CPLs in your professional lives? Q7.) Explain psychological variations of apparent CPLs? Q8.) What do you think of “making as much money as possible” as a CPL? Q9.) Why should we study Employer-Employee relationship in government jobs? What is the approach that should be taken for this study? Q10.) Apart from what government ought to do, what else one needs to know, for understanding employer-employee relationship in government jobs? Q11.) What is the right role of government in the society? Q12.) What are the different activities governments have done in society? (May or may not be derived from right role of government in the society). Q13.) What are various drivers of government and government employees? Give examples. Q14.) How should constitutional driver be evaluated? Give examples from book or outside. Q15.) Which role in private organization can be compared to a role of politician in the society? Q17.) What should be done about the activities that government should not be doing in the society? Give examples from book or outside. Q18.) How should taxpayers driver of Government jobs be evaluated?
  14. Good Morning, today is Saturday, 9th March. Main study starts now. Following is the scope for this week’s study ------ WEEK 1 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF AN ORGANIZATION 2. VARIOUS CONNETIONS BETWEEN THE CENTRAL PURPOSE OF LIFE (CPL) OF THE EMPLOYER(S) AND EMPLOYEE a.) Create value in same material form b.) Create complementary values c.) Learning work-specific skills d.) Discovering the CPL e.) Wages ------ I will publish questions that the participants can optionally answer. Participants can also summarize or outline the text. They can also select the portion of text, analyzing and synthesizing it deeply, chew the content that is. So here are the questions from this week's content Q1.) Which relationships are deepest in an organization? Q2.) From definition of an Organization, identify the key attributes of Organization, and list these in bullet points? Q3.) What is the difference between an individual and an organization, when they engage in transactional or contractual relationship? What is the similarity? Q4.) What can an employee do to become successful and happy? Q5.) Summarize different forms of business collaborations, sorted according to their complexity in an Organization? Q6.) What are different ways in which the business collaborations can be sorted in Organizational Ethics? Q7.) What are similarities and differences between purpose of an Organization, and Central Purpose of Life for an Employee? Q8.) Give examples of Purpose of various Organizations from the book and outside? Q9.) What is the significance of Employee’s Central Purpose of Life in an Organization? Q10.) Give an example of the connection of Employer-Employee CPLs from the book and outside? Q11.) What does create value in same material form mean in the context of Industrial relation? Give example from book or outside. Q12.) What does creation of complementary values mean in the context of Industrial relation? Give an example from book or outside? Q13.) Under what circumstances is creation of complementary values part of Contractual relationship? When is it part of Employer-Employee relationship? Q14.) What does learning work specific skill mean in the context of Industrial Relation? Give an example from book or outside. Q15.) How does management of Employee having “learning work specific skill” as main goal in an organization change, compared to an employee having previous two CPLs? Q16.) What does “Discovering CPL” mean in the context of Industrial relation? Give an example from book or outside? Q17.) What is the opportunity for an Employer, if the employee is in “Discovery of CPL” stage? Q18.) What does “wages” mean in context of Industrial relation? Give an example from book or outside? Q19.) How does management of Employee having “wages” as the main goal in a job change, compared to employee having first three, or even “discovering CPL” as the goal in an Organization?
  15. Please check following links to get a glimpse of whats in store.1. Study Group on intellectual development of Ayn Rand - http://forum.objectivismonline.com/index.php?/topic/28351-ayn-rand-chapter-from-the-power-and-the-glory/2. Study Group on how iPhone was conceptualized and developed - http://forum.objectivismonline.com/index.php?/topic/29185-becoming-steve-jobs-how-a-reckless-upstart-became-a-visionary-leader/
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