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Boydstun last won the day on January 13

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    Stephen Boydstun
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  1. Boydstun

    Good 2 Person Board Games

    I just learned of a 2-person game from the Bronze Age (4000 years ago). Today's archaeologists evidently call it 58 Holes. If I understand correctly, the game Chutes and Ladders is that game. (I'm not a game person, as an adult, except for a period of playing Scrabble, which I liked---but no time for it in many years.) The game had been found in the Near East, but in November, Walter Crist of the American Museum of Natural History in New York discovered that it was also played in Azerbaijan, which is about a thousand miles north. SCIENCE NEWS (12/22/18) quotes Crist as saying "Bronze Age herders in that region must have had contacts with the Near Eastern world [eg. Iran]. Games often passed across cultures and acted as a social lubricant."
  2. William, I link below a good book of modern formal logic. (The author has another book on mathematical logic, which is beyond this much logic.) I learned a lot from it, and he has some neat historical notes at the ends of chapters. This logic is not a rejection of Aristotelian logic (leaving aside A’s modal logic, which is a further area, beyond what we’d think of as standard formal logic, and beyond the scope of this textbook), certainly not whole cloth, though it assimilates advances in deductive logic attained in the late 19th and early 20th century. I’m not aware of anything Rand wrote decrying modern formal logic itself. She probably never took up mastery of the contents of the textbook I link here. I’d think she would have taken issue, however, with common philosophies of logic with then-current views on the ways in which logic is situated with our understanding of the world. I’m thinking of the various views on logic expressed by Dewey or Nagel or Wittgenstein (in his later phase). When I look into the Index of The Letters of Ayn Rand, I find no entry for logic, only for basis of logic. The basis of logic in her philosophy (and I concur in this view) and setting the nature and use of logic in serious sensitivity to that basis was a part of Nathaniel Branden’s lectures in those days The Basic Principles of Objectivism and later in Leonard Peikoff’s Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand. Beyond those, I incline to take issue, springing from Rand’s view of the nature of logic, with a couple of ways in which inference is treated in standard modern logic texts. But this is no wholesale rejection of formal modern logic, the contested friction points are actually old, and there are contemporary experts on both sides. https://books.google.com/books/about/Methods_of_Logic.html?id=liHivlUYWcUC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button#v=onepage&q&f=false
  3. Boydstun

    Correspondence and Coherence blog

    Merlin, Concerning the rationality and the explanatory virtues of Cantor’s extensions of finite arithmetic, and the prior failure of the part-whole approach by Bolzano, you might like to look into pp. 207–12 of Philip Kitcher’s The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge (if you’ve not done so already).
  4. Boydstun

    Fred Miller

    Most recently, from Prof. Miller: Aristotle - On the Soul and Other Psychological Works Notre Dame Review ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Peek into Fred Miller's paper at Ayn Rand Society Meeting 2005 here. I expect this paper will be included in a planned volume on Aristotle and Rand in the series Ayn Rand Society Philosophical Studies.
  5. Boydstun

    Health & Evasion.

    . Akilah, The tale of Beauty and the Beast or Victor Hugo’s novel The Laughing Man or the play Cyrano de Bergerac dramatize in extreme form something pervasive in real life: It is inner life, one’s soul, and inner health with its inner beauty that is the realm of moral character. That character is displayed in real life in outer life behaviors, not in outer beauty. Don’t judge people such as the four real men you mentioned to be “seemingly” lacking in concern with or effort for their health because they appear not beautiful to you. That is not sound and would be a disastrous way to proceed with your life in the social world. If you have issues against Rand’s philosophy, go right to those, and state them directly. Don’t settle for glancing blows against the philosophy by attacking its exponents personally. That is junk. Attack the philosophy position-by-position head on. (Even if you agree with points in the philosophy, consider what arguments and evidence can be mustered against them and what you think about those counters specifically. This is philosophic understanding.) Think about the philosophy itself, and give your objections and counter-reasoning. That is the stuff worthy of smart heads. Some examples: Rand held that the only way of winning knowledge was by rational processes. True or false? What can be said against this view? Not against the person holding the view, but the view itself. Rand held that every individual and their life is an end in itself. True or false? . . . Rand held that the purpose of morality is simply to help one live and enjoy oneself. True or false? . . . Rand held that the justification of a national defense is the protection of individual rights. Really? . . .
  6. Boydstun

    Objectivism in Academia

    . “In the poem ‘Human’ (1903), Gorky says of the new man that he is lost ‘among the desserts of the universe . . . on the little piece of the earth’. Yet, ‘he is going bravely ahead! and higher! On the way to victories over all the secrets of the earth and sky’. . . . “‘There was a cold wind outside, and an empty stretch of land under an empty sky” (Rand 1957, 15). The train encapsulates all the problems of a society that is living---and dying---due to the principles of collectivism. . . . The desert is the symbol of a hostile world in the novel: it is made obvious in the scene depicting the crash of the train at the Arizona desert [1160-61]. . . . “. . . In ‘Human’, Gorky glorified the new type of human, who is a creator and whose major impulse is Thought. . . . . . . “But there is a great difference between Gorky’s Human and Rand’s ‘new human’. . . .” JARS 18(2):326-27) --From the paper in that Winter 2018 issue of JARS: “Ayn Rand’s ‘Integrated Man’ and Russian Nietzscheanism” by Anastasiya Vasilievna Grigorovskaya, who has a number of publications on Ayn Rand, in Russian, and who is working on the first doctoral thesis about Rand in Russia (Tyumen).
  7. Doug, I don’t think that the philosophy of Ayn Rand nor any other particular philosophy—whether rational, irrational, or mixed—will ever come to be the guiding philosophy for all autonomous humans. Were such a philosophic frame ever accepted universally, then just wait. In time diversity of frame would return. Not returned after 100 years? Wait. It would return. But more realistically, the course is never going to result in any one particular philosophy being universally accepted. I mean freely accepted, but that just means really accepted. There can be nuclear exchanges that do not result in total extinction. Wait. The finale one not happened after 500 years? Wait. It will come. I don’t know if you’ve ever read the neat book This Perfect Day by Ira Levin. In that story, there is massive secret coercion being committed on the world population by a central authority, making the people peaceful as well as completely determinate and coordinate in their productions and consumptions and life spans. But there will be leaks, sooner or later, of individuals slipping out of the system, returning to their own free mind and body, and they will join together with other leaked fellows and fight the world system. Stephen
  8. . Nuclear war is not an idle threat. It is a real threat. Multiple states having great nuclear weapons capability---USA, Russia, France and some others---together with the real potential for use in an escalating international crisis is how nuclear deterrence has been able to work so long as it has. There was no guarantee it would work this far, but on the other hand, our understanding of mutual unacceptable damage and our moves to secure it were our best move in the circumstances. All-out nuclear war will happen sooner or later. I suggest that internationalism on that issue, specifically nonproliferation meddling in the programs of other countries, is a way of pushing that finale of the human world, including all the peoples of all the nation states, to later rather than sooner. Silence on this reality will not make it go away. The human world changed with the Bomb. Even if mutual nuclear disarmament were someday attained, human nature will not change, and the technology and new production will come back to that ultimate, total human demise. Our best move is to push out that demise to the farther future, and pure nationalism, a nationalism that would include non-intervention on this issue of ever more countries attaining deliverable nuclear explosives, rather hastens that future extinction. I do not take the end of the race of men to diminish a whit the glory that our kind existed and was what it was. Our kind was an end in itself, just as each individual and mortal human life was an end in itself. I think a book today on nationalism that does not address effect on the nuclear end-date would be myopic.
  9. Boydstun

    Tests of General Relativity

    This note too is not on experimental tests, but this seems a fair place to put it. Since Stephen Hawking made the theoretical discovery of particle/anti-particle pair production at the event horizon of black holes, many couldn’t help but think he was touching some key to future profound unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. For Hawking had drawn that conclusion we know as Hawking Radiation by doing quantum field theory in the spacetime structure at the event horizon. This possible key seems to be taking further tantalizing shape by recent work on quantum chaos effects in black holes. Douglas Stanford
  10. Boydstun

    What is the relationship between Christianity and altruism?

    sN, Looking into the New Testament just now, I see that Jesus gave two overarching commandments. Firstly, to love God with all your heart and mind; secondly, to love your fellow humans as you love yourself (Luke 10). I gather he thought you should be loving yourself. This prophet was going around, as the story goes, performing miracles to good purposes for humans of earth. So there is a large reservoir of mystical power in the background of the moral perspective he declares. He says he is adding to and completing the old Commandments, and he gives some examples of how to go above and beyond their letter with an understanding of them grounded in love. Not only do not murder, but do not be angry with your fellow human nor call your fellow a fool nor look down on your fellow. Else be punished by God. Make peace with your fellow before coming to the altar to leave a gift for God. (And don’t be making a big show of your gifts to God or to your fellows.) In some cases, he reverses the old precepts. Down with “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.” Rather, do not resist evil. Turn the other cheek for the evildoer to hit as well. Down with loving only those who love you. “What credit is that to you? Even the tax-collectors do that!” Love your enemies as well. Then you are sharing in the perfections that are possessed by God (Matthew 5). His moral rationales are shot through with alleged reciprocities of benefit to one performing the good act. These are benefits, physical and social, coming back to one who sticks with God in letting go of benefits for now. The coming back will be from other humans or from God. In his model prayer, Jesus says to ask God for the bread one needs and to forgive one’s failures, as one is forgiving the failures of others (Luke 11). Some reciprocity here, and nothing against bread for oneself. Beyond keeping the religious law, Jesus tells one wealthy man who keeps the law, yet still feels incomplete, to reach perfection by giving all his possessions and money to the poor. He’ll have riches in heaven if he does that. Meanwhile, join Jesus in his crusade (Matthew 18). From the Sermon on the Mount: “How happy are those who know their need for God, for the kingdom of Heaven is theirs! “How happy are those who know what sorrow means, for they will be given courage and comfort! “Happy are those who claim nothing, for the whole earth will belong to them! “Happy are those who are hungry and thirsty for true goodness, for they will be fully satisfied. “Happy are the merciful, for they will have mercy shown to them! “Happy are the utterly sincere, for they will see God! “Happy are those who have suffered persecution for the cause of goodness, for the kingdom of Heaven is theirs! “And what happiness will be yours when people blame you and ill-treat you and say all kinds of slanderous things against you for my sake! Be glad then, yes, be tremendously glad—for your reward in Heaven is magnificent. . . . “You are the earth’s salt. . . . “You are the world’s light. . . . (Matthew 5) I rather think that building a case for altruism—or for socialism or for capitalism—based on the teachings of Jesus is far off the mark. Altruism is the doctrine that moral goodness is from sacrifice of self for the benefit of one’s fellow humans. Jesus-likeness without God at center of moral goodness should be laughed out of court. (The translations are by J. B. Phillips.)
  11. Boydstun

    What is the relationship between Christianity and altruism?

    . I've noticed the failure of Jesus to preach altruism in the Bible. "Love your neighbor as yourself," which was also trumpeted by Paul, hardly measures up to such dicta as "Service above Self" (Rotary Club).
  12. Boydstun

    Grieving the loss of God

    You might get a chance to know because you seemed to be dying and then it turned out you did not. That happened to me. I know. It was about the matter of fact of how far and not farther I'd gotten with my intellectual discovery and creation, and lastly just about me and the one I love, just a lighted disk of light with only the two of us in it and only dark and irrelevance and nothing all around that disk.
  13. Boydstun

    Grieving the loss of God

    SL, interesting question. Somewhat before I read Rand, I had turned in just a few quiet moments alone from being a life-long devout Christian to the realization there is no God. I was 18. There was a great cleanness that the fierce victory of truth brings to one against all prior evasion, such as in the realization of Cheryl about her husband in Atlas. I had a momentary feeling of loss along with the realization of how much I had loved God. It was like the end of a love affair, though with the difference that the object of that love had never existed. That feeling of loss did not carry on beyond that moment, unlike end of a love affair with a fellow human. There rushed in in those moments a vast feeling of benevolence for all mankind, I think because of the realization that no one was watching over them. That feeling is constant with me, though without an accompaniment by any sense of loss, only that I watch over them and love them. Nietzsche counted the "death of God" as a liberation, but also as a fearful event for all, such as an earthquake. He thought of it as a loss of anything to esteem, although he proposed we can set up new things to esteem at least for a long while, until we overturn those things too, and move on to new values. And all of this wrenching and aspiring he considered a nobleness of soul. It was elevation of a neurotic psyche, and of a man who lacked and derailed real science and regular commercial or familial labor and who lacked appreciation for the four-square limits of human being and accomplishments in the world as it is.
  14. . Here is some work related to Peikoff’s treatment of Locke on philosophy of logic in his 1964 dissertation. The Peikoff 1985 cited herein is a bit of his dissertation. I wrote this paper in 2012. Contradiction and Red/Green – Locke Recall Ayn Rand’s law of identity in application to attributes, such as color. “Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification. / Whatever you choose to consider, be it an object, an attribute or an action, the law of identity remains the same. A leaf cannot be . . . all red and all green at the same time . . .”(1957, 1016). The logical character of the proposition that a particular surface cannot be all red and all green at the same time has been controversial. In Book 1 of his Essay concerning Human Understanding (EU), John Locke held “principles of demonstration ‘Whatever is, is’ and ‘It is impossible for the same thing to be and not be’” (EU 1.1.4) as unnecessary for the acquisition of all knowledge. “These maxims are not in the mind so early as the use of reason . . . . How many instances of the use of reason may we observe in children, a long time before they have any knowledge of this maxim, ‘That it is impossible for the same thing to be and not be’?” (EU 1.1.12). In Locke’s view of development, one first gets ideas of particular things through sense impressions, then general ideas by abstraction from the particular ideas. Before one has learned that it is impossible for the same thing to be and not be, indeed, before one has learned to speak, one has learned that bitter is not sweet, white is not black, and red is not blue. Upon that and upon coming to speech, one learns that wormwood and sugarplums are not the same thing, that a rod and a cherry are not the same thing, that a square is not a circle, and so forth. Upon the same grounds that one came to know those differences, one later comes to know that it is impossible for the same thing to be and not be (EU 1.1.15-20; 1.3.3–4; 2.1.6, 22–26; 4.7.9–10). Turning from development of knowledge to its structure, Locke goes on to say in Book 4 that in apprehending that white is not black or that a circle is not a triangle we do so directly. Knowledge that our ideas of these things are mutually exclusive is not known by demonstration, hence they require no principles of demonstration such as the principle of noncontradiction. We grasp the exclusivity of black and white in a self-evident perception, which Locke calls intuition. Like Plotinus, Anselm and many others before him, Locke thinks of all other knowledge as dependent on intuitive knowledge. The latter is the ultimate source of all certainty in knowledge. “A man cannot conceive himself capable of a greater certainty than to know that any idea in his mind is such as he perceives it to be; and that two ideas, wherein he perceives a difference, are different and not precisely the same” (EU 4.2.1; see also 3.8.1; 4.7.4, 19). Is the sum of the angles of a triangle the same or variable from one triangle to another? Seeing the sameness of that sum and the sameness of that sum to the angle of a half-circle for all triangles in the Euclidean plane is not self-evident, but requires demonstration (EU 4.2.2). Each step of a demonstration, in Locke’s view, requires intuitive knowledge (EU 4.2.6). The mind can perceive immediately the agreement or disagreement of each step in the demonstration just as the eye can immediately perceive that black and white are distinct and whether a white paper is entirely so or contains some black marks (EU 4.2.5). It is intuitive knowledge alone, in Locke’s sense of the concept, that is at the base of human knowledge, certain or probable (EU 4.2.8; 4.2.19). It enables the certain demonstrations in geometry, demonstrations with the ideas of “extension, figure, number, and their modes” (EU 4.2.9; a triangle is a relatively simple mode: 2.12.4; 2.31.3; 3.3.18; 3.9.19; 4.4.6; 4.7.9). We enjoy accuracy in making and discerning differences in our simple ideas of extension, figure, and number because they are quantitative. (On simple ideas, see EU 2.2.1; 2.3.1; 2.5; 2.7.7-9; 2.30.2; 2.31.2, 12; 2.32.9, 14–16; 3.4.11, 14; 3.8.2; 4.1–2; 4.3.1–21; 4.4.4.) Those ideas are of the primary qualities of things such as Rand’s leaf. Secondary qualities apparently of things, such qualities as colors, are ideas produced in us by the impingement of particles endowed with only primary qualities. In Locke’s day, there were no ways of measuring relations of sameness and difference in the degree of a secondary quality, though he ventures to suppose that greater intensities of primary qualities produce greater degrees of a secondary quality. There are presumably degrees of differences in whiteness that we cannot discern, degrees corresponding to fine degrees of differences in primary qualities that could produce them. All the same, there are degrees of difference in secondary qualities we do perceive, and such intuitions suffice to found inferential knowledge beyond subjects such as geometry or mechanics. Where the difference in discerned difference in a secondary quality “is so great as to produce in the mind clearly distinct ideas, whose differences can be perfectly retained, there these ideas or colors, as we see in different kinds, as blue and red, are as capable of demonstration as ideas of number and extension” (EU 4.2.13). Where Locke has written “as capable of demonstration,” I think he means “as capable of use in demonstration” (though he could mean additionally what he argues elsewhere in the treatise: there is equally zero capability of any of these different kinds being discerned by demonstration). Is a sheet of paper before Locke, a paper waiting for the first impression of his pen, all white? Even if it is everywhere white, is it anywhere also red (yet not pink) or black (yet not gray)? We have no direct verdict below our visual thresholds. How does Locke have us know for sure that if the sheet is all white, it is in no part also red or black? Leaving rather faint the issue of how we know secondary qualities are always produced by primary qualities (cf. Ayers 2011, 146–51), Locke sinks intuitive knowledge concerning imperceptible secondary qualities into the bedrock of intuitive knowledge of primary qualities (EU 4.2.11–12; 4.3.11–13, 15; cf. Descartes 1632, 3–6; 1647–48, 255–56; on Locke’s distinction of primary-secondary, see EU 2.8.9–23; 2.30.2). Locke maintains that for any particular object whatsoever, at a particular time, its extension will be a particular extension, excluding all other particular extensions; its figure will be a particular figure, excluding all others; its motion will be a particular motion, excluding all others. He maintains furthermore that particles of light reflected from a definite part of an object to a particular place of a viewer cannot appear both yellow and azure. “For it is as impossible that the very same particle of any body should at the same time differently modify or reflect the rays of light, as that it should have two different figures and textures at the same time” (EU 4.3.15; see also 2.32.14; unique awareness from unique physical inputs had been embraced also by Descartes, supra; Des Chene 2001, 139–40). Locke generalizes these various sorts of particular exclusion: an object cannot have two exclusive degrees of a given quality simultaneously. Locke realizes that the impossibility of a leaf being all red and all green is a case of the principle that it is impossible to be both A and non-A. After all, he takes the latter principle to be a generalization of such exclusions encountered in leaf color, fortified by underlying exclusivities in the characters of primary qualities (cf. EU 2.27.1, 4). To say the impossibility of a leaf being at once all red and all green is a case of the logical impossibility of being both A and non-A is not to say the impossibility of the former case derives from the impossibility of the latter general principle. That redness of entire leaf and greenness of entire same leaf are mutually exclusive is not shown by the general principle there are mutually exclusive attributes of entities in existence. Locke correctly recognizes that. “These particular instances, when well reflected on, are no less self-evident to the understanding than the general maxims [superfluously] brought to confirm them: and it was in those particular instances that the first discoverer found the truth, without the help of the general maxims: and so may any one else do, who with attention considers them” (EU 4.7.11[3]). One weakness in Locke’s sensualist tendency to inductively warrant the necessity of noncontradiction by necessity of exclusions one encounters in sensory qualities is noted by Leonard Peikoff. Leaving the necessity of the principle of noncontradiction as only a necessity encountered in sensory qualities “seems to invite an immediate Humian type of refutation” (Peikoff 1985, 199). Locke’s theory of abstraction is inadequate to the task of delivering from perceptual bases the principle of noncontradiction, noncontradiction in particular and specific identity, noncontradiction in natured entities, their actions, and their attributes. In Locke’s view, we do not attain certain knowledge of the essential natures of physical entities, unlike the situations of our knowledge of simple sensory qualities (primary and secondary) and of mathematical entities. Staying within his view, there is no possibility of arriving at Rand’s absolute principles of identity and noncontradiction through the objects of the senses (EU 2.1.3–9, 22–26; 2.8.7–8; 2.10.6; 2.11.1–9; 2.18.6–7; 2.22.4–5; 2.25.9; 3.3.6–20, 28–38, 49; 4.4.1–6; 4.6.4–16; 4.7.4, 9–10, 16–19; 4.8; 4.11.13–14). It is a defect of Locke’s view of color qualities that it is set on difference and sameness in sensed qualities as secondary and their tie to qualities as primary. According to Locke’s scheme, the former, such as the qualities red and green, are in us; they are modifications of our sense organs, thence appearing in our minds, wrought by impinging primary qualities. Rand is set, rather, on the leaf and its color nature. Yes, red and green are different things. Yes, part of the story of how we attain express understanding of the principle of noncontradiction is by prior learning of sameness, difference, and exclusivity encountered in experience. But the sense of noncontradiction Rand is deploying—the sense of identity and exclusion Rand is deploying—is of natured entities. One does not need to know anything about the travel of light to the eye, the physical nature of light, the physiology of the eye, or perceptual thresholds in order to know that it is of the nature, the identity, of leaves and our visual power that no leaf can be at once all red and all green (cf. EU 4.11.2). Thanks to a presentation of Paul Churchland’s, I have experienced afterimages that seem to be entirely of two distinct colors at once. That experience has now become available to me (more tenuously) in Churchland’s chapter on chimerical colors in Neurophilosophy at Work (2007). I follow the viewing procedure, and in figure 9.11, I get to see fading afterimage discs that are at once mauve and black or at once blue and black and so forth. The point of constructing this figure is for the experience of what Churchland calls “impossibly dark” afterimage colors (the scare quotes are his), not to show patches of afterimages that are two colors at once. I leave it for the reader to dig into this important book’s purposes and their fulfillment. Afterimages are always fading. What I am experiencing as mauve and black “at once” is occurs while mauve is turning to black. Whether this experience is rightly a case of seeing a portion of surface, screen or page, as two colors could be reasonably disputed. Suppose it qualifies as such a case. It can be taken under wing in Rand’s picture by saying that leaves have their color nature, afterimages have theirs. The same sort of assimilation could be taken were it the case in the future we learn (i) that canonical reflectance profiles of a surface (Churchland 2007, Ch. 10) can be made two canonicals at once by some treatment of the surface and (ii) our visual system can be made to discern them distinctly when artificially and appropriately altered by, say, an electronic apparatus. Were leaves susceptible to said treatment giving them two canonical reflectance profiles, then in Rand’s conception of noncontradiction in attributes, we should say untreated leaves have their color nature, treated leaves have theirs. In the experience of Rand or Locke, it was not only the surfaces of leaves that were not anywhere at once both red and green. The same was found of any physical surface whatever. It was found likewise for volumetric color. Locke, and Rand too, might recall a certain liquid which when poured into another produces two colors; but the orange and azure produced are regional in the volume, not both simultaneously throughout (EU 2.11.3). Locke, like all of us, would want to look into the particulars of the physiology that make afterimage “impossibly dark” colors possible. Understanding of this physiology indeed enabled prediction of this previously unknown effect (Churchland 2007, Ch. 9). Locke could be pleased to see that afterimage colors have their bases in some primary qualities. These colors, like all experienced colors so far as we know, are patterns of nervous activities transforming retinal patterns of activity. Afterimage effects are artifacts of a visual system adaptive in its evolution to color perception of the world. The exclusion character of different canonical surface-reflectance profiles is present in the exclusions of the pattern of nervous activities that are color. But the particulars of this transport of exclusivity shows that Locke’s reasoning from exclusions among primary qualities to exclusions among secondary qualities was spurious. Returning to Locke’s sensualist epistemology more generally, afterimage experience of two colors everywhere in a region and my futuristic technological scenario quake Locke’s claim that we know the essence of colors just by knowing red is not green and not blue and so forth. Our knowing distinct simple ideas of qualities, secondary or primary, and our putting distinct names on these distinct ideas is insufficient to capture their exclusionary character, their essential natures as attributes of entities. Let the quake shake off that pretension of closure. It remains for Locke and everyone that “red is green” is a contradiction of experience or a contradiction of correct labels. Experience supporting “red is not green” can still support a principle of noncontradiction that recognizes there are distinct items in the world and distinct names to keep them straight. These remains are, however, not distinctive of attributes. They fall short of recognizing the radical general dependence of attributes on their entities and recognizing the full structure of noncontradiction as it applies to attributes. There is more trouble for Locke. We have seen he held we grasp the exclusivity of red and green by self-evident perception, which he called intuition. Though we become ready to grasp the general exclusivity of A and non-A by such previous sensory experiences of exclusivity, the former is self-evident and self-evident in the same way as the latter (EU 4.7.9–10). If the intuition that nothing can be at once all red and all green were self-evident in the same way as red not being green is self-evident, then fallibility of self-evidence in the proposition that nothing is at once red and green all over shows fallibility of self-evidence for the principle that nothing is at once A and non-A. My afterimage experience and my futuristic, scientifically informed scenario indicate fallibility in the “self-evidence” of the proposition that nothing is at once red and green all over. Time to check premises, for the result that contradictions are not perfectly self-evidently false is patently false. We may have also some trouble for Rand, but as suggested already, it can be skirted without significant alteration of her metaphysics. In saying a leaf cannot be at once all red and all green, she may have been relying on an Aristotelian sort of dynamical contrariety among colors themselves. Then regardless of what surface or medium may sport colors, the colors dynamically exclude each other at a given place. Her language is pretty strongly against this interpretation, for she speaks of leaf color, though that could by slim chance indicate merely that the dynamical contrariety of colors holds for all surfaces, including leaf surface. Any such line of thought about attributes can be omitted from Rand’s metaphysics. There remain more than enough riches of identity to get beyond Locke. References Ayers, M. 2011. Primary and Secondary Qualities in Locke’s Essay. In Primary and Secondary Qualities. L. Nolan, editor. Oxford. Churchland, P. 2007. Neurophilosophy at Work. Cambridge. Descartes, R. 1632. Treatise on Light. In Gaukroger 1998. ——. 1647–48. Description of the Human Body. In Gaukroger 1998. De Chene, D. 2001. Spirits & Clocks – Machine & Organism in Descartes. Cornell. Gaukroger, S., editor, 1998. Descartes – The World and Other Writings. Cambridge. Locke, J. 1690. An Essay concerning Human Understanding. A. C. Fraser, editor. 1894. Dover. Peikoff, L. 1985. Aristotle’s “Intuitive Induction.” The New Scholasticism 59(2):185–99. Rand, A. 1957. Atlas Shrugged. Random House.
  15. . Grames, I imagine that earlier text I posted concerned my controversial picture in which not only do actualities that are concrete exist apart from thought, but potentialities of concretes are concrete existents existing apart from thought. Although I still maintain that view (and still distinguish potentials of concretes from possibilities, reserving the latter to the windings of thought), my earlier presentation of it and wider comprehension of it became obsolete because in it I had continued to accept another of the Objectivist exhaustive partitions of existence, the concrete/abstraction partition, which I later saw to be wrong in that right-hand member as the fundamental supplement to the concrete. The routing of that error and its correction has been revolutionary for my project. I’m sorry I can’t share that alteration with you now and indicate some of its ramifications downstream; I should wait for the book to reveal that. .