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SpookyKitty

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Everything posted by SpookyKitty

  1. I was about to respond but then I read this. Good advice. Put it this way. At this point, I'd rather have 8 more years of Bush than endure another second of Trump.
  2. He was for avoiding economic shutdown, but if you think that's because he even remotely cares about economic freedom as such, you're a fool. This is the same president that started a trade war with China in the 21st century. This is the same president that funneled Covid-19 relief to his family and cronies. This is the same president under whose watch government debt exploded by $6.6 trillion. This is the same president who imposed tariffs on Canadian aluminum imports because they were selling it "too cheap", and some Russian oligarch didn't like that. Is this the work of a principled mind? Ec
  3. What does it matter? He was in complete and total denial of reality every step of the day. Any approach taken from that standpoint is certain to fail. Almost every other leader in the first world did do better, despite the denialists in their country (especially Italy). The predictions of scientific bodies were not "extreme" they were accurate. When did he do this? Have you been paying any attention to what's been going on at all? The only thing that Trump ever did that experts recommended was wear a mask that one time he visited a veterans' hospital. Every other time, his posi
  4. Trump's insane response to COVID-19 should be enough to immediately disqualify him from being given any further consideration as a serious Presidential candidate.
  5. My understanding of how the banking system works is pretty weak, but I'll take a stab at it. Households get the money to pay the interest from increased wages. The money needed for this is created when firms take out bigger loans.
  6. The word "unit" is NOT a synonym of the word "particular". The word "particular" is an antonym of "universal", both of which are metaphysical notions. Units are epistemological. If I wanted to talk about units, I would have used the word "unit".
  7. Ummm... yeah... cuz that's totally a thing that normal, sane people do... Here: unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit unit
  8. Ok, see this is what I have a problem with. Strictly speaking, there are no "quantities" in reality since every thing that actually exists is a particular. So one cannot literally have "two" (or more) of any particular thing. Therefore, quantities are abstractions, and cannot be used in the process of concept formation without concept-stealing. What I was saying earlier was that the first step of concept formation (the one where we move beyond concrete representations of concrete entities), is not the passive process of measurement omission, but the active process of interpolation (the ex
  9. We assumed that "P(g) or not P(g)". We then derived "P(u) or not P(u)" by excluded middle. Since we assumed one and then derived the other, we can use implication introduction to infer "If P(g) or not P(g), then P(u) or not P(u)".
  10. Recognizing a pattern you've already seen would be an instance of induction. But figuring out a totally new pattern you've never seen before would be an instance of concept formation.
  11. Abstraction from abstraction isn't relevant here because what I described is an abstraction from concretes. Not at all. My point was that what patterns someone can recognize in data is a function of the concepts they have and not simply perception.
  12. This is a contradiction. There is always some property that some thing has from which we can deduce that another thing has it too. Proof: Let g be "God" and let u be "universe". Let P be any property. First, suppose that "P(g) or not P(g)". Then, by the law of excluded middle we have, "P(u) or not P(u)". By implication introduction this gives, "if 'P(g) or not P(g)', then 'P(u) or not P(u)'". Now, let the property Q(x) be defined as "P(x) or not P(x)". We now derive, "if Q(g), then Q(u)". The proof of the converse is left as an exercise to the reade
  13. I agree, but that's not all that they are for. To be fair, I misspoke here. The central component of Rand's theory is that you can extrapolate values of characteristics from the range of the "crow epistemology" (measurements whose values you can directly perceive) to the conceptual level (measurements you can't directly perceive, such as distances in the light years and such). Rand's theory allows you to do this. My problem with it is that, since it only allows for the total abstraction of one characteristic at a time, the resulting concepts cannot encode complicated interdependencies among ch
  14. @Eiuol I agree with a lot of what you said. I also think qualitative distinctions are more fundamental than quantitative ones. @Grames @Easy Truth I will write out some rough thoughts I've been having and some research I've been doing on this subject. Hopefully it will make things clearer. Imagine that you have two entities where the measurements of the first entity with respect to some characteristics (that we care about) are (1.0,1.0,1.0) and the measurements of the second entity are (2.0,1.0,1.0). Now, at the end of the day, Objectivism allows you to form exactly on
  15. This is an important question that I've been thinking about as well. The more I introspect, the more I realize that my brain just doesn't work the way that Rand describes. For me, if I merely know how to classify a thing, I don't feel like I understand it. But if I can see its structure and the structures it forms in relation to other things and how that structure might be changed and so on, only then do I feel like I truly understand it, and only then can one come up with truly non-arbitrary classification schemes. As an example from algebra, if you were to just tell me that a group is j
  16. Yes, that seems like a very important distinction to keep in mind. The only thing I would change is to avoid naming this characteristic "constructible" and the values "0" and "1", and instead use the terms "hypothetical" and "actual". An entity with the value "hypothetical" denotes an entity that has merely been imagined, whereas the value "actual" denotes an entity that has actually been observed. I'm sure there's a fancy word for this kind of distinction, but I forgot what it was. Is this what you have in mind? Yeah, it would be absurdly hard, since then you would have to reproduce a
  17. Two characteriatics A and B are commensurable if and only if they are identical as types. For example, Char1 is commensurable with Char1 and nothing else. Color is commensurable with color and nothing else.
  18. Characteristics are supposed to be anything you can directly perceive. For example color, texture, shape, etc. Their terms are the values of those characteristics like red, rough, round, etc. I Will make a more detailed submission soon.
  19. EUREKA! After several cups of coffee and another sleepless night, I now have an example of a second-order concept. Basically, this concept is a concept about first-order concepts. First-order concepts are those that are directly about entities at the perceptual level, such as the concept C above. The second-order concept I've cooked up, called Valid_1_Conc determines whether a given first-order concept is actually valid or not according to known Objectivist Epistemology. Let's take a look at it: Inductive Valid_1_Conc : (Entity -> Prop) -> Prop := | is_valid (F : Entity -&g
  20. I've been working on an idea I had a while back that Objectivist Epistemology is equivalent to a fragment of Intuitionistic Type Theory. From the The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: I am not the fist to notice that the Objectivist account of concepts is somehow linked to programming. Furthermore, through type theory we can go further and link up the Objectivist notion of concepts with logic in a formal, constructive, and algorithmic way. I hope to use type theory to eventually give a detailed account of higher-order concepts and logic consistent with Objectivism. I
  21. Thank you for your intelligent and thoughtful contributions. You two are truly the bearers of a deep and enlightening philosophy. I will immediately file away these incredible insights alongside the deep wisdom I acquired from flat-earthers, creationists, and post-modernists. As a more direct answer to William O from a more traditional Objectivist perspective, some concepts are formed solely through introspection. These are what Rand called "concepts of consciousness", and modus ponens is one of them. I am currently writing up a short paper which explains how the various concepts of logic
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