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The Paradox of Choice (Too much choice?)

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Has anyone else come across a complaint that means "too much choice is the same as no choice"?

I've been hearing it more and more lately. Apparently the reasoning behind it is that it is too hard to amke up one's mind when there are too many choices available.

I really don't see it. I mean, yes, it can be hard to make a cjoice when there are many alternatives, each of which has something you want or need. But if you must, or want to, make a choice, you can do so with a little thought if your priorities are in order (whatever these priorities may be). For example, choosing where to go on vacation, or what movie(s) to rent, or what book to read, etc. I ahve heard complaints on such things.

And yet, one time I did feel that way. I was 19 years old traveling in Israel. I had to make my way to London for a return flight to Mexico. this was in the mid 80s. There were more than a few choices and I had trouble figuring out which one would be "best." I wished there was only one choice so I'd be spared the effort and thinking. I'm ashamed of having thought that way. And I'm glad to say I've never done it again since (I did get a good deal, though).

So I could dismiss the whole thing as a wish to evade respnsibility and effort. But there's more than that.

It's probable when you choose something over other choices you will find out a better deal afterwards. By then it is too late to do anything about it, except perhaps remember it for futre reference. But if you find a better flight to Seattle once you've come back, there's no way to untake your flight and ourchase the better one. Realize what you did wrong (if you did do something wrong), learn from it and move on. Right?

Sure. But some people for some reason are unable to so. An acquaintance once told me he delayed nearly five years buying a computer even though he very much wanted one. Why? because he figured no matter which one he bought, he'd see acheaper, better one a few months later. Well, he's entirely right. PCs still progress at high speed, and today's high-end model is, sometimes literally, tomorrow's also-ran, and next year's clunker. The same thing happens with oterh electronics, such as cell phones and digital camreas.

I regard all this as good, not bad. Five years ago a 2 mega-pixel camera cost, say, $250. Today my cell phone has a 2 MP camera built in, and that is nowhere near the best cell phone camera available. Great! I see that no matter what I have now, I'll have something cheaper and better when I decide to replace it. That's progress, right?

Some years back I bought my first cell phone, back in the days when color screens were unkown and size was all that mattered (the smaller the better). I saw another customer buy the then hot phone, a Motorola star-tac flip phone advertised as the world's smallest phone. He hired a relatively expensive call plan and paid $1,200 for the phone. Not quite 15 months later I traded my Nokia for a Motorola star-tac flip phone for free!

But my acquaintance sees the world differently. It's not that he won't wait for the better stuff to come donw in price, but that he feels he made a huge mistake by not waiting. but if he waits, then he feels he shuold wait a little more, and a little more, and a little more, not realizing, or not liking, the fact that at some point what you can get is good enough for your needs and desires. He's the personification of the Achiles vs the Turtle fallacy, except he makes it work. He sets up an impossible ideal and is upset when he can't get it.

It is impossible because computers, cell phones and such keep getting better and cheaper. What he wants, essentially a permanent and perfect form of satisfaction, requires that this progress stop entirely.

Last week my old CRT TV died after 12 years of service. I was going to wait a few months more to replace it with a plasma or LCD, but I found a good deal (18 months credit and 20% rebate). Six months from now no doubt they will be cheaper and better. Seven months from now I could have perhaps bought a 42" rather than a 32". But all I had at hand to replace my TV now was a 19" flat CRT, and that's too small. I chose the 32" Samsung LCD now over a larger future one because 32" is perhaps big enough for that room, it's better than 19", and I got a good deal. Now I'll keep it until it breaks down, or until I can replace it cheaply. In any case I'm satisfied that I got a good product at a good price.

Have I ever made a choice I later regretted? Sure. I bought a Vista PC too soon. Had I waited as little as three months I'd gotten a better one for the same price. Neverhteless, it is better than the PC it replaces. I'm not entirely satisfied, but I'm better off than I was and I elarned how long I should wait the next time there's an OS upgrade (until there are more choices available). Once I bought a pair of sneakers that went on sale the next day. Too bad. I had no way of knowing there'd be a sale (it wasn't sale season), I did the best I could with the information available.

The notion there is one, and only one, "perfect" or "ideal" choice comes from unrealistic expectations, from not recognizing what's real, what's possible and what's within one's means. If someone thinks that way, then too many choices are vexing rather than being a world of opportunity. They will want no choices, too, since that would relive them of the stress they make themselves feel.

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With tech that drops in price, I look at the price curve and buy at the "knee". When I was looking at TVs recently, 5 inch increases cost $150. Until you got to 47 inches which was suddenly $500 more than the 42. I expect the 47 inch price to drop like a rock, the 42 inch less so. I bought the 42 inch.

Similarly with digital cameras. I won't compromise on 10-12x optical zoom; once I look ONLY at those cameras; you see a gradual increase in price until suddenly the next incremental improvement costs a *lot*, at least this week. I just go ahead and buy the best one that's not likely to drop in price next week.

It seems like cell phone models become obsolete every six months or so; I probably could not find my current cell phone today and it's only been 15 months. Not only that but the batteries, plug-ins, etc., seem to change as often. I can't for the life of me figure out how the accessory manufacturers (who have to support oldere models for a couple of years, at least) can keep up.

I've been shopping for furniture and have access to catalogs from dozens of manufacturers. It takes a LONG time to go through them all--it would seem there is too much choice--but then even after all that work, I don't find something I particularly like--so there's not enough choice. I expect the hunt for an entertainment center will be really tricky. Problem is nowadays they make them expecting a large TV to go on top, so they are only about 18" tall now. I want the components up about 3 feet off the floor with storage underneath for the CDs and/or DVDs, the TV will be on a totally different wall of the room. Can't find that any more, at least not in a style I want to look at.

Edited by Steve D'Ippolito
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Has anyone else come across a complaint that means "too much choice is the same as no choice"?

No, but then maybe that is because we tend not to have much choice in New Zealand. I have heard people things that mean little choice is the same as no choice, though,

I've been hearing it more and more lately. Apparently the reasoning behind it is that it is too hard to amke up one's mind when there are too many choices available.

That is a fallacy people have because they cannot be bothered considering all of the options. There is no real limit. It simply takes more time and effort when there is more options.

PCs still progress at high speed, and today's high-end model is, sometimes literally, tomorrow's also-ran, and next year's clunker.

If anything with advances like optical processors, carbon fibre nanotube chips, etc all getting ever closer to fruition computers will accelerate their rapid improvements. Advancements like these could see Moore's Law become pessimistic.

plan and paid $1,200 for the phone. Not quite 15 months later I traded my Nokia for a Motorola star-tac flip phone for free!

It is impossible because computers, cell phones and such keep getting better and cheaper. What he wants, essentially a permanent and perfect form of satisfaction, requires that this progress stop entirely.

Actually, government regulations could make that possible. Government regulations could turn the electronics industry into another one of the go nowhere industries that used to have rapid progress. However, as it stands there is little regulations in regards to development of electronics hardware, making it a comparatively free industry, hence its rapid innovations.

Have I ever made a choice I later regretted? Sure. I bought a Vista PC too soon. Had I waited as little as three months I'd gotten a better one for the same price. Neverhteless, it is better than the PC it replaces. I'm not entirely satisfied, but I'm better off than I was and I elarned how long I should wait the next time there's an OS upgrade (until there are more choices available). Once

I also bought Vista when it first came out, but for a different reason; I had to replace the hard drive and buy an OS for it, so I got Vista because it seemed better than XP to me. I was right. From my experience even when it first came out while it did have some issues it was nowhere near as bad as most people thought. Most software and driver incompatabilities could be fixed by updating the software/driver. Also, many of the OS based issues could be easily fixed or worked around if one made the effort to figure out or learn how. In short, Vista was not so bad as people thought; it was mostly user laziness and/or stupidity.

The anti-Vista attitude is part of a widespread anti-technology attitude, which is a part of the anti-progress attitude, an attitude your acquaintance has.

I bought a pair of sneakers that went on sale the next day. Too bad. I had no way of knowing there'd be a sale (it wasn't sale season), I did the best I could with the information available.

That sort of thing happens a lot to me; I buy something and then days later or a week later it is on special. This is especially common with food or drink treats, ie, things I get rarely and can afford to hold off on.

The notion there is one, and only one, "perfect" or "ideal" choice comes from unrealistic expectations, from not recognizing what's real, what's possible and what's within one's means. If someone thinks that way, then too many choices are vexing rather than being a world of opportunity. They will want no choices, too, since that would relive them of the stress they make themselves feel.

They are context dropping. They are dropping the context that there will always be better (unless the market is heavily regulated) and the context that their decision has to be about getting the best possible within their means when they need/want it.

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This concept was mentioned in one of the ARI lectures I watched a while ago. The speak basically said that the economic debate for capitalism was over and the only remaining arguments were utterly weak. One being that people have "too much choice", he said there's a word associated with it I can't remember what. Let me see if i can find which lecture it was.

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It seems like cell phone models become obsolete every six months or so; I probably could not find my current cell phone today and it's only been 15 months. Not only that but the batteries, plug-ins, etc., seem to change as often. I can't for the life of me figure out how the accessory manufacturers (who have to support oldere models for a couple of years, at least) can keep up.

I've wondered about that, too. My next-to-last cell phone I kept for 18 months. After 15 months the holster broke and I couldn't find another one that size. I had to carry it in my pants pocket.

I've also wondered why the various manufacturers won't set up a single standard for power plugs. Batteries, I see how they might want some diversity for the sake of design freedom. But plugs are plugs. They could all be the same.

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Actually, government regulations could make that possible. Government regulations could turn the electronics industry into another one of the go nowhere industries that used to have rapid progress. However, as it stands there is little regulations in regards to development of electronics hardware, making it a comparatively free industry, hence its rapid innovations.

Sure. But I think government will have a hard time coming up with enough idiotic regulations to completely slow advances. Even in the the welfare states of Europe there's a good deal of innovation, and they've been impeding progress far longer than the US and Japan.

I also bought Vista when it first came out, but for a different reason; I had to replace the hard drive and buy an OS for it, so I got Vista because it seemed better than XP to me. I was right. From my experience even when it first came out while it did have some issues it was nowhere near as bad as most people thought.

I urgently needed to replace my XP box. It consistently and unfailingly crashed every few hours, and it was failing physically as well.

As for Vista, I've had no major problems with it. To be fair I didn't ahve much legacy hardware (just one printer and a mouse). I had trouble with the HP keyboard, which wanted to open iTunes whenever I hit the "alt" key (and I hit the "alt" key a lot to access menus). I couldn't fix it, but it finally went away when I switched to my old keyboard (the older one has wrist-rests).

Most of the gripes about Vista are about a dislike of Bill Gates and Microsoft. To be sure ther eare better OSs, but apparently not better enough for masses of people to purchase Macs, or get Linux distros.

That sort of thing happens a lot to me; I buy something and then days later or a week later it is on special. This is especially common with food or drink treats, ie, things I get rarely and can afford to hold off on.

Those are entirely unpredictable. They depend on sales, of course, but also on expiration dates. Let's say vinegar potato chips are selling well enough, but some will expire at the current rate. So you put them on special to avoid that.

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Sure. But I think government will have a hard time coming up with enough idiotic regulations to completely slow advances. Even in the the welfare states of Europe there's a good deal of innovation, and they've been impeding progress far longer than the US and Japan.

Don't underestimate them. They can do it. Atlas Shrugged shows us how.

I urgently needed to replace my XP box. It consistently and unfailingly crashed every few hours, and it was failing physically as well.

I had to replace my HDD because several chips on it were fried.

As for Vista, I've had no major problems with it. To be fair I didn't ahve much legacy hardware (just one printer and a mouse). I had trouble with the HP keyboard, which wanted to open iTunes whenever I hit the "alt" key (and I hit the "alt" key a lot to access menus). I couldn't fix it, but it finally went away when I switched to my old keyboard (the older one has wrist-rests).

Most of the gripes about Vista are about a dislike of Bill Gates and Microsoft. To be sure ther eare better OSs, but apparently not better enough for masses of people to purchase Macs, or get Linux distros.

As far as I can tell most of the Vista-specific ones are about driver/software incompatibility issues which the user could of fixed themselves if they'd bother to check for an update. Or things like UAC nagging too much. The anti-Gates and anti-Microsoft statements are not Vista specific; they Windows specific (notice that the same sentiments are not raised as much with other MS software, such as Visual Studio, Windows Live Messenger, Expression Studio, etc).

Those are entirely unpredictable. They depend on sales, of course, but also on expiration dates. Let's say vinegar potato chips are selling well enough, but some will expire at the current rate. So you put them on special to avoid that.

Of course. The point was that it is unavoidable that one will miss something one wants or needs being cheaper than when one bought it, even if it is just a sale.

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Don't underestimate them. They can do it. Atlas Shrugged shows us how.

Oh, they can kill the electronics industries. They can kill anything, that's what they're best at. But not, I judge, through the regulation of advances.

Remeber DATs (digital audio tapes)? They'd have followed the CDs way back in the early 90s. They never got to market because the manufacturers couldn't come up with copy protection to satisfy the record labels. But that was entirely a private matter (I think some system was worked out eventually, but by then everyone was burning CDs and interest in DATs was zero).

High definition TV was endlessly delayed while a standard was agreed upon. Government had something to do with it, since the "public" airwaves were involved (they're not airways and sure as hell they shouldnt be public). But innovations in TV designs dind't stop. While government fiddled with HD, we got cable-ready sets, multiple audio programs, flat screens, more versatile remotes, plasma and LCD screens, etc. Even some failures like 3D broadcasts. And such peripherals like DVDs, DVRs, Satellite TV, etc.

Of course. The point was that it is unavoidable that one will miss something one wants or needs being cheaper than when one bought it, even if it is just a sale.

Of coruse. There comes a point when all the choices available are more than one man can handle. That is, you cannot possibly go through all of them. What you can do is spot and know the trends that do exist. For instance, every store has a sale right after Christmas. If you wait longer, they get rid of all the fall/winter clothing by mid February. During good times these sales offer good deals but not much choice, as amost everything sells before Christmas. During bad times the choices and deals are great. There are outlet malls, too, which generally ahve very low prices. Lastly you can always ask. Sometimes you find out about upcoming sales or specials that way.

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Has anyone else come across a complaint that means "too much choice is the same as no choice"?

...

The notion there is one, and only one, "perfect" or "ideal" choice comes from unrealistic expectations, from not recognizing what's real, what's possible and what's within one's means. If someone thinks that way, then too many choices are vexing rather than being a world of opportunity. They will want no choices, too, since that would relive them of the stress they make themselves feel.

I think you hit the nail on the head at the end, all the problems associated with 'too much choice' stem either from people who do not want the responsibility of thinking, or from an implicit form of platonic idealism.

Google "Paradox of Choice" or "Absolute Maximizer"

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=p...amp;btnG=Search

and prepare to be dissapointed

The person who agonized over which meal to get at a dinner is obsessed with absolutely maximizing their utility, which can stem from nothing but an obsession with the perfect 'ideal' meal. Same for all consumer goods. All the wannabe social tyrants when faced with the pyschological crippling effect of worshipping abstract ideals which demands virtually divine omniscience in making a simple consumer choice, instead of merely pointing out the idea of 'good enough' instead use it as the weakest of all attacks against capitalism and demand of course yet more rules and laws to limit choice.

Personally, I've adopted fully a 'good enough' strategy, and when picking out any new consumer good, I alot only a certain amount of time to researching it in proportion to the importance that good plays in my life. Once that time is reached, it's my go / no go time, and I make the purchase.

Edited by Matus1976
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I think you hit the nail on the head at the end, all the problems associated with 'too much choice' stem either from people who do not want the responsibility of thinking, or from an implicit form of platonic idealism.

Thanks.

To be fair, though, there exists the special case of people who've grown acustomed to few choices who sudenly find lots of other choices available. Think of people from poor countries moving into richer ones, people from dictatorships moving to semi-free or free nations, people who suddenly run into a lot of money (lotto winers, suddenly popular stars, etc). I've given this group littel or no thought.

The person who agonized over which meal to get at a dinner is obsessed with absolutely maximizing their utility, which can stem from nothing but an obsession with the perfect 'ideal' meal.

I approach dining out as a pleasant event that will cost money. How much money I decide beforehand by choosing a restaurant. once I have a menu in rfont of me I try not to concern myslef with prices, but rather with what I want. BTW I find it harder to choose when a menu has too few choices rather than too many. A very large menu may take too long to go through, but a very small one simply is bare and unappetizing.

Anyway, an "ideal" meal is one I enjoy. Be it orange beef at my favorite fancy chinese restaurant, or a smoked rib taco at the stand in front of the office. In their own way, each is as satisfying and enjoyable as the other.

Personally, I've adopted fully a 'good enough' strategy, and when picking out any new consumer good, I alot only a certain amount of time to researching it in proportion to the importance that good plays in my life. Once that time is reached, it's my go / no go time, and I make the purchase.

That's a good approach. personally I don't alway allot myself a certain time, but I do know when I've been at it long enough and should choose instead of wasting more time. I also set up my searches so I can see broad, important differences first, then I can anrrow the search to the more likely places. Past experience helps a lot, naturally.

I do always keep thigns in perspective. I won't spend hours finding the best price for a can of soda, given that the difference doesn't amount to much anyway.

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I couldn't help but laugh last night in Wal-mart as I thought about this thread while trying to select body wash. I was tired from not sleeping well the night before and the vast array of products was dizzying, but I persevered. Later, while taking a hot, relaxing shower, I discovered that I had chosen wisely and the soap felt luxurious against my skin. Hooray for choices! :lol:

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Oh, they can kill the electronics industries. They can kill anything, that's what they're best at. But not, I judge, through the regulation of advances.

I didn't mean regulation of advances. I meant broad reaching regulations of the electronics industry or with Atlas Shrugged style legislation.

Remeber DATs (digital audio tapes)?

In fact no; I never heard of them.

For instance, every store has a sale right after Christmas. If you wait longer, they get rid of all the fall/winter clothing by mid February.

Indeed. In that case it is worth waiting a week to a month for the sale since you know it will happen. There is also the New Year sales, mid-year sales, and sales on other public holidays.

During good times these sales offer good deals but not much choice, as amost everything sells before Christmas.

Here in NZ the stores tend to have plenty left for their Boxing Day and New Year sales and they tend to be better deals than their Christmas deals.

There are outlet malls, too, which generally ahve very low prices.

Here in NZ we just have outlet shops and they tend not to have the things I am looking for.

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Indeed. In that case it is worth waiting a week to a month for the sale since you know it will happen. There is also the New Year sales, mid-year sales, and sales on other public holidays.

The big department stores have two large sources of revenue, clothing and furniture. I know next to nothing about furniture, but I worked for years int he garment industry for years. There are two seaosns: spring/summer and fall/winter. Near the end of each, whatever remains goes on sale. Therefore the big sales after Xmas and in the summer.

Here in NZ the stores tend to have plenty left for their Boxing Day and New Year sales and they tend to be better deals than their Christmas deals.

Of course. People perforce buy their Christmas gifts before dec. 24th. It takes a very bad economy to get good deals before the 24th.

Here in NZ we just have outlet shops and they tend not to have the things I am looking for.

Outlet stores

are
limited in choice. For some thigns it amkes no difference. I mean, if you want blue Dockers, or any kind fo jeans, then the Levi's outlet is as good as the regular store at a better price. Finding good shoes and shirts is more difficult.
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Outlet stores limited in choice. For some thigns it amkes no difference. I mean, if you want blue Dockers, or any kind fo jeans, then the Levi's outlet is as good as the regular store at a better price. Finding good shoes and shirts is more difficult.

Well, the only outlet stores I see are for things like books where the selections are crap in the outlet stores.

By the way, what is an outlet mall?

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By the way, what is an outlet mall?

An outlet mall is a mall made up mostly or solely by outlet stores. Outlet stores are shops where manufacturers or large distributors sell directly to the public. They're very popular in America, and we've had them in Mexico since the late 90s. Some department stores also operate outlet shops to sell whatever they can't sell at their regular stores.

The merchandise is usually last season, irregular, or both. "Irregular" is an industry term meaning a garment does not pass quality control and cannot be fixed to do so. Irregular garments either cannot be worn, in which case they are discarded, or they can be, in which case they're sold at a discount in an outlet store.

Prices range anywhere from 35% to 75% less than retail.

Well, the only outlet stores I see are for things like books where the selections are crap in the outlet stores.

Do we mean the same thing by outlet store?

Booksotres are rare in outlet malls as outlined above, but sometimes you find a Borders (major US bookstore), or some other bookstore, which sells a rather odd assortment of books. For some reason they stock plenty of coffe-table books, adn they let them go very cheap. I bought one about Greek mythology for $5 US. Some years back I found a hardback tome with 5 Mike Hammer novels for $10.

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Outlet stores are shops where manufacturers or large distributors sell directly to the public.

Do we mean the same thing by outlet store?

Outlet stores are something different in NZ. An outlet store here would be something like Borders* having a main shop in the Auckland CBD and a smaller store with a much smaller selection in another part of the Auckland CBD but close by. The smaller store is run by the manager(s) of the main store. (Note: that is a real example; the main Auckland Borders store is on Queen Street and the Borders Outlet Store is on a street off Queen Street.)

What you describe an outlet store as is called a factory shop here in NZ.

* Yes, the same one you refered to. NZ has 5 Borders stores.

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What you describe an outlet store as is called a factory shop here in NZ.

In the US outlet stores at first were called factory outlet stores. I guess since distributors got involved the name changed to simply outlet store.

Long ago, circa the mid 70s, I recall there were shops in Laredo, TX that sold irregulars and left-overs from manufacturers and/or big department stores.

* Yes, the same one you refered to. NZ has 5 Borders stores.

I dind't know that.

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Has anyone else come across a complaint that means "too much choice is the same as no choice"?

Another way of saying this is "too much competition is the same as no competition."

A high level of competition does three good things for buyers: First, it drives down profits/prices as vendors compete for business; second, it drives innovation which leads to increasing quality and decreasing cost of production; third, it provides variability of products, allowing buyers to choose products that more closely meet their desires.

The overall result is, regardless of whether he chooses to choose, the buyer will almost certainly get a better value the more choice he has.

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I do always keep thigns [things] in perspective. I won't spend hours finding the best price for a can of soda, given that the difference doesn't amount to much anyway.

Exactly! One's time and mental energy are valuable, too. The choices and price comparisons in, eg, fancy chocolates and consumer electronics, can be dizzying. But there is much good quality at good prices. How much time would you take to decide between a Ferrari and a Porsche? Each has its specific virtues and you'd get a hell of a ride in either case. A good rule of thumb: identify a good product (in your context) at a good price (in your context) and dont have second thoughts. There is more of life to enjoy that you would miss. Having more money doesn't help. It just pushes the bar upwards. Should Donald Trump buy this superyacht or that one? After a certain point he needs to start thinking about real estate again. Efficiency is not always effectiveness. Penny-wise, pound-foolish. Specialized knowledge is valuable only in a context, not by itself. As Nietzsche observed of the humanities professors of the 19th century, "Scholarship is the delight in having caught a worm."

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How much time would you take to decide between a Ferrari and a Porsche? Each has its specific virtues and you'd get a hell of a ride in either case.

Ferrari. I don't like the Porsche's looks. So there :)

Seriously, a Ferrari. I like its styling much better than Porsche's. Of course, if I really had the money for either one, and wanted a good sports car, it would depend on exactly how much money is available for purchase, what service options there are (you can't just take a fine car like a Ferrari to any shop), etc. It's not an easy choice, unless you live in Maranelo, Italy.

Having more money doesn't help. It just pushes the bar upwards.

Having more money gives you that much more choice, too. Not only are the more expensive options available, but there are other things you can use that money on, too.

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  • 1 year later...

*** Mod's note: Merged with an earlier thread on a similar topic. - sN ***

http://video.stumbleupon.com/#p=wyvbu28pe3

What a crock of shit.

I'm sorry sir, but the choices aren't what's paralyzing your mind. You're just not decisive enough to know what the hell you want. :pimp:

Edited by softwareNerd
Added 'merged' note
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