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  1. @Harrison Danneskjold That video presents ideas for the amelioration of senescence or aging and only to a certain extent, not a cure. The Chief Science Officer of the organization behind that video once stated that the word "cure" has done more harm than good with respect to educating people about aging. The word "cure" implies that aging is a disease, which is something that some people get throughout their lives and some don't. That's not what aging is. It's a side-effect of being alive in the first place and there is no evidence that it can be fully stopped.
  2. So based on reading some of the discourse you guys went through, when I was discussing forming the concept “length,” I think that what I really had in mind was actually “extension,” I was just using the word “length.” It looks like the concept “length” is derived from the concept "extension." I think @merjet made a good distinction between length and extension. I also think that length can be thought of as “the longest spatial dimension of an object” and “extension” is just “a spatial dimension of an object.” I wanted to try expressing my main point with the examples I gave la
  3. @dream_weaver Page 132 of ITOE. She doesn't say this herself but she does respond "That's right" after the person she is having a discussion with states "For instance, in the case of concrete versus entity, the units are the same, but the concept entity distinguishes entities from attributes, while the concept concrete distinguishes entities from abstractions." To this statement, Rand responded "That's right. @merjet Yes it is possible to form higher-level concepts before you form lower-level ones and Rand does discuss the possibility of a child doing this at some point in ITO
  4. @Grames In that quote in your response I called it an existent. But I do see earlier in my post I called it a "unit" and this was a mistake on my part. I thought calling it an existent was a better choice of words because I didn't know what other word to refer to it by. What would you call the "redness" when you are using redness to differentiate two shades of blue from in the process of forming a concept of blue? I think of it as "what you are using to differentiate blue from." And it doesn't have to be red it could be green right? Rand said you need something COMMENSURABLE that you
  5. @merjet I'll check out that document. But I wanted to respond first to what you mentioned: How do you know that the x's and non-x's satisfy "a more abstract, wider, less specific, category" if that category corresponds to a higher-level concept which you have not formed yet? In your example, you're trying to form the concept of X, but you're using the higher-level concept that subsumes the X's and Non-X's to guide you in forming the concept X. And you're using that higher-level concept when you impose the requirements that the x's and non-x's "should satisfy a more abstract, wider, l
  6. I had a question about the way in which we form concepts. The definition of a concept is “a mental integration of TWO OR MORE units possessing the same distinguishing characteristics, with their particular measurements omitted.” However, when I listen to Peikoff’s lectures about how to form concepts, his examples always involve something more than just the two units. It involves something else to differentiate the units from. For example, he explains how to form the concept blue by observing two particular instances of blue, one shade of blue and a slightly different shade of blue and omitt
  7. @Grames I think I get what you're saying I just want to affirm a couple things. I noticed you stated "proof of induction." I think you might have made a typo here. What I was referring to was Peikoff's "inductive proof of causality." My understanding is (or was) that Peikoff was not "proving induction," he was using induction to induce (prove) causality. This was my previous understanding of what was happening. And now from you I'm understanding that it was not a proof of causality but a nifty horizontal integration of "identity" and "causality." Is this an accurate understandin
  8. @Grames If they are horizontally related through some other concepts that are hierarchically prior to both, how can causality and identity be horizontally relatable? What concept is there that is "hierarchically prior" to identity? I thought identity was the most fundamental concept anyone can form. There shouldn't be anything hierarchically prior to "identity" right?
  9. @Grames I was not aware that Peikoff changed his mind about this. This is causing me to have a few questions that I was hoping to get some answers to. Is Peikoff basically saying that his inductive proof of causality that he goes over in a course called "An Inductive Approach to Philosophy" is wrong? He mentions in the lecture that it essentially involves 3 concepts: entities, identity, and action i.e. entities with identities acting in a particular kind of way in accordance with their identities. What is wrong with this understanding? What is improper about this understan
  10. And I already mentioned the ability to create new life does not imply that you can indefinitely extend a given life. The idea that you can "apply" that ability to indefinitely extend a given life is flawed.
  11. You missed the part where I told you about the arrow-of-time, non-equilibrium nature of living beings. Replacement of anything cannot happen instantaneously, whether its living or non-living. At every single instantaneous moment of your existence, your internal energy states are being taken from an ordered non-equilibrium state to a disorded equilibrium state until an equilibrium configuration is reached. As soon as a moment passes, your fundamental life generating/life sustaining processes are already busy bringing you closer to equilibrium in your next moment of existence. This is where
  12. Nothing that I have argued is refuted by the ability of life to create NEW INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS. Entropy based on internal energy state configuration and the necessary life-sustaining irreversible processes that continuously cause it to rise over time are defined ONLY FOR AN INDIVIDUAL ENTITY/SYSTEM. During the creation process of a NEW INDIVIDUAL, those continuous, irreversible processes have not yet been set in motion inside the new individual. It is a new, separate system with it's own, different identity which is getting all of its initial energy states built up and constructed during its
  13. @StrictlyLogical Instead of “entropic” I should have been more precise and used the word “irreversible.” The irreversible processes that have to occur in living entities in order for living entities to continue to exist do result in an internal energy state configuration change from non-equilibrium to equilibrium that manifests as decay/damage/deterioration. It isn’t like the ideal engines we learned about in school, the ones with no internal rireversibilities. We made simplifying assumptions in school that allowed us to show that something like a diamond engine can be thermal
  14. It may have repaired an injury or something like that but the fact remains that a living being is still older than it was after it healed than it was before it healed. In order to sustain its life, it went through irreversible, entropic processes that drove its healing but still resulted in an overall energy state configuration closer to equilibrium.
  15. You cannot apply the same argument to a messy room because a room does not need to go through continuous entropic processes in order to continue to exist. It is not an oversimplification. And even during the process of creating a new human being, that human being does not exist yet during that creation process, so that concept would not apply. It's only after the human's continuous, entropic, and self-sustaining processes start that that concept would apply. I don't know if this is something that is "in principle" like you said. There is a biologist whose name is Nasif Nahle and he ex
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